i feel you, man. The key for me back in high school was finding the 1-3 friends i hung out with in school. And I didnt find them until the second year of high school.
So my suggestion would be to find any like-minded person/person into the same things youre into and hang out with them. Don't worry about a group of friends or girls or anything that can seem daunting since thats like going from A-Z in one step
there might be people similar to you but dont notice since they might go out of their way to not be noticed
First of all here is a hug because you seem to need one: :squeeze
The thing is that you are trying, and you are actively taking people's advice by joining clubs I see. That is very courageous of you. The only thing I say is keep trying or maybe do something a little differently when you try to interact with other people. A lot of the times in the past, when I'd socialize, I'd expect to make the other party to make the first move -- but nah. Your self-esteem flourishes more when you do it and are successful in it. Now to be warned, not all social interactions will work out, but that's OKAY. It's okay to fail, and it's okay to feel rejected, isolated or lonely. They are feelings, therefore have the ability to be fleeting. The thing is, how do you react to those feelings. Do you give up? Or do you pick yourself back up and keep trying? The latter option sounds better.
I am in the same position, just older. And I have felt the same way since I was a teen. The best advice I can give you is to try and find people who you like, true friends. Don't just try to fit in with others by pretending to be someone else. Sounds very cliched but it is true. Just be yourself and try to find people similar to you in school or just around where you live. Once you leave school it is much harder to make friends.