If your boss liked you and can put in a good word for you, you should be able to get a good job, or at least another temp job, someplace else.
I also just got done with a temporary assignment. I've had the same part-time job for the past decade, which of course doesn't cut it financially or any other way. To supplement that job, I went to a temporary agency that finds temps for a healthcare behemoth (the largest employer in the city), and they hired me on for a clerical job. What a sucky job this was, and it only served to make me more fond of my small company part-time job. Huge companies hire too many people, and this office brought on four college interns a few weeks ago. Before they came, people were looking around for something to keep them occupied during the full-time shift, as work was slow. After they arrived, it was even more so. Since I was doing a good job, I thought that they might bring me back for a second three months, but apparently you have to ask to be re-hired as a temp, and I had no interest in staying at this job. Plus, it's likely that the surplus of employees figured into them not bringing me back. So as of today, I'm back to my part-time job, but I'm probably going to call the temp agency in a few days or look at another company.
Instead of looking at unemployment as an alternative, just hit the job search hard. Reply to reputable Craigslist ads, go to other temp agencies, etc.