- Major Depressive Disorder
- Bipolar Disorder
- Bipolar 1
- Bipolar II
- Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified BD-NOS
- Seasonal effective Disorder
- Psychotic major depression
- Catatonic Depression
Major depressive disorder
- Circumstantial Mood Disorder
- Alcohol induced mood disorders
- Benzodiazepine induced mood disorders
- Substance induced mood disorders
is also known as major depression, clinical depression, or unipolar depression. The term unipolar refers to the presence of one pole, or one extreme of mood- depressed mood. This may be compared with bipolar depression which has the two poles of depressed mood and mania (i.e., euphoria, heightened emotion and activity).
In addition to depressive thoughts and symptoms of Depression
peopel with MDD
will have other physical and mental symptoms that may include fatigue, difficulty with concentration and memory, feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, headaches, body aches, and thoughts of suicide.
Bipolar I Disorder
is diagnosed when a person has had at least one manic or mixed episode, often along with a major depressive episode. It affects equal numbers of men and women in approximately 0.4% to 1.6% of the population.
Bipolar II Disorder
is diagnosed when a person has had a major depressive episode along with at least one hypomanic episode. It affects more women than men in about 0.5% of the population.
People with Bipolar Disorder
experience a wide range of feelings depending on the phase of the illness is present. During a phase of depression, a person will have many of the symptoms of a major depressive episode. He or she may have despondent mood, a loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, or problems with concentration.
The manic phase is the most extreme part of bipolar disorder. A person becomes euphoric, ideas come much too fast, and concentration is nearly impossible. Anger, irritability, fear, and a sense of being out of control are overwhelming.
The cycles of bipolar disorder may be different for each person. Oftentimes a person may first experience depression. Then depression may be replaced with manic symptoms and the cycle between depression and mania may continue for days, weeks, or months. Between phases of depression and mania some people return to their normal mood. Some others have several periods of either depression or mania. Still others may experience several bouts of depression with infrequent phases of hypomania, or repeated manic episodes with occasional depressive periods.
is a milder yet more enduring type of depression that affects women two to three times more often than men. The diagnosis is given when a person has had continuous depressed mood for at least two years. Dysthymia
is a condition that tends to develop early in a person's life, but most people delay approximately ten years before every seeking treatment. This is unfortunate since the sooner a person seeks help the sooner he or she can get relief and possibly avoid further distress. Early treatment may help children and adolescents avoid more serious mood disorders, difficulties in school and their social life
, and possible substance abuse
problems as they get older. At any point in time, 3% of the population may be affected by dysthymia. Within a lifetime it appears to affect approximately 6%. Those with immediate relatives who have had major depressive disorder have a greater likelihood of developing dysthymia
Dysthymia may also be associated with the presence of personality disorders (e.g., avoidant, dependent, histrionic, borderline, narcissistic). However, it can sometimes be difficult to determine the extent to which a personality disorder is present since some of the long-term problems of dysthymia may affect interpersonal relationships as well as how a person perceives him- or herself.
Cyclothymic Disorder is a milder yet more enduring type of bipolar disorder. For at least two years a person will have experienced many periods of hypomanic symptoms (but not quite a manic episode), alternating with many periods of depressive symptoms (but not quite a major depressive episode). Essentially, a person's mood alternates between a less severe mania (known as hypomania) and a less severe depression.
Cyclothymia appears to affect equal numbers of men and women. It typically begins when a person is an adolescent or young adult and the condition tends to be chronic. There is a risk of 15%-50% that a person with cyclothymia will eventually develop bipolar disorder.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
In terms of diagnosis, seasonal affective disorder
is not really a separate mood disorder from major depression or bipolar disorder. Instead, "seasonal pattern" is a specifier used as additional diagnostic information to describe the regular pattern of the depressive episode associated with major depression or bipolar disorder. For instance, a person could receive the following diagnosis:
Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode, Moderate, With Seasonal Pattern
However, since people often refer to this type of depression as "Seasonal Affective Disorder" or "SAD" we will use that terminology here. SAD is a condition that affects a person during specific times or seasons of the year. Typically the depressive symptoms of this condition begin during fall or winter, and end when spring arrives. At other months during the year a person's mood will be normal, or at least will not meet criteria for clinical depression.
Substance-Induced Mood Disorders
Depression may be caused or precipitated by the use or abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, medications, or exposure to toxins
Alcohol induced mood disorders
the long term effects of alcoholism and heavy drinkers can lead to depression, depressive episodes, delirium and post traumatic stress disorder to name a few.
Benzodiazepine induced mood disorder
The long term use of benzodiazepines work similar in the brain as alcohol does and are both known to cause and/or hinder depression and raise anxiety when addiction becomes a problem and these substances are not taken on a daily basis. Major depressive disorder may also occur as part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome
The syndrome can also cause, Delusions, fear of losing control, suicidal thoughts and attempts, paranoia, hearing voices, loss of appetite, loss of energy, irritability , manic episodes of euphoria and increased sensitivity to light and sound.
An abrupt or over-rapid discontinuation of benzodiazepines may result in a more serious and very unpleasant withdrawal syndrome that may additionally result in:
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Organic brain syndrome
Circumstantial mood disorders occur when something happens in a persons life to cause grief, concern, tragedy or panic such as War, famine, death, rape, suicide, bullying, sexual harassment and violence.
Often a person will become withdrawn, antisocial and display symptoms of major depression and/or high anxiety and suicidal thoughts.
Circumstantial mood disorders are not always temporary as the effects of the tragedy that occurred can leave a lasting impact on someone's mental health and well being and medication and treatment may be needed long term to help. People with Circumstantial mood disorders often develop post traumatic stress disorder that can be with them for the rest of their lives.