Mm, it definitely could. Situations such as what you described you experienced when you went out and males gave you a lot of attention, can lead to a general feeling of un-safeness or continued alertness. If you're out and about a lot, the stress and fear hormones would build up in your system, and over the long term this can have really uncomfortable effects for you.
In this case, your increased attractiveness is not the direct cause, what's causing you to feel unsafe is the male attention, and the way you interpret it. Since you interpret it as intrusive and aggressive, it causes you anxiety.
So the answer to your initial question, does attractiveness cause anxiety is yes, in your case it does, and that really sucks. I think you should definitely find a good counselor or psychologist and talk to them specifically about these issues, because I think there are a lot of good therapy options available for someone like you who would like you be more comfortable going out.
Edit: Oh gosh, I just noticed, I might have made it sound a lot like I thought you were at fault here. This is not the case at all! What happened happened, not because you wanted it to, or made some mistake, and it is very unfortunate.
Years ago, I got by day by day. I ticked them off, one day in the calendar at a time, all the while being slowly crushed. It's not as bad as it used to be.